Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individual’s families and communities so they may attain maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care training and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians and this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. Nurses are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings depending on training level. In the postwar period nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. Aspiring RNs may earn a diploma an Associate Degree in Nursing ADN or a Bachelor of Science in Nursing BSN. The ADN route is the most common way to obtain licensure as a registered nurse and usually involves a 2 year program at a community or junior college. Adult nurses work with patients over 20. They can work in hospitals or in community settings such as people’s homes health centres or nursing homes. Once qualified they can take extra courses to specialize in areas such as cancer care, women's health accident and emergency critical care’ practice nursing’ health visiting or school nursing. Mental health nurses plan and deliver care for people living at home in small residential units or in specialist hospital services. Nurses working in this field need enhanced communication skills to support families and careers. They work with other health care professionals to ensure patients with mental illness get the specialized care they need. They may develop expertise in areas such as rehabilitation child and adolescent mental health substance misuse or working in secure settings. Nurses who qualify in this branch of nursing help people with learning disabilities to live independent and fulfilling lives. They may work with people in supported accommodation or with those who need more intensive support for instance in hospitals or in specialist secure units for offenders with learning disabilities. There is also the opportunity to specialize in areas such as epilepsy management or working with people with sensory impairment. Children’s nurses work with children and young people up to 20 years old and can work in a variety of settings from specialist baby care units to adolescent units. Children react to illness in a very different way to adults and children’s nurses are specially trained to understand their needs. Children's nurses also support advice and educate parents and careers. Once qualified they can specialize in areas such as health visiting school nursing intensive care child safeguarding and cancer care.